The main data

Oblast  Lviv Oblast
Raion Lviv City Municipality
Founded  13th century
Magdeburg law 1353
- City Chairman Andriy Sadovyi
 - City 171.01 km² (66 sq mi)
Elevation 296 m (971 ft)
Population (2007)  
 - City 735,000
- Density 4,298/km² (11,131.8/sq mi)
- Metro 1,040,000
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
- Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 79000
Area code(s) +380 32(2)
(Data are used from free encyclopedia)

A short history

    Lviv (Ukrainian: Львів, L’viv [ljviw], Polish: Lwow; German: Lemberg; Russian: Львов, L'vov; see also other names) is a major city in western Ukraine.
    It is regarded as one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine. In 2001, it had 725,000 inhabitants, of whom 88 per cent were Ukrainians, 9 per cent Russians (down from 16 percent in 1989) and 1 per cent Poles.[1] A further 200,000 people commuted daily from suburbs.
    The city has many industries and institutions of higher education such as the Lviv University and the Lviv Polytechnic. It has a philharmonic orchestra and The Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet. The historic city centre is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Lviv celebrated its 750th anniversary with a son et lumiere in the city centre in September 2006.
    For many centuries it was contested: first it belonged to the Kievan Rus', since 1340 to the Kingdom of Poland, and subsequently to the Polish half of the Commonwealth. In 1772 it became part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, after World War I the city belonged to the Second Polish Republic. As a result of the joint Nazi-Soviet attack on Poland, Lviv was taken by the USSR. Now, it belongs to the independent Ukraine.
    In 1772, following the First Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the city, known in German as Lemberg, became the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. After Poland was reconstituted following World War I, Lviv was the centre of ethnic-political controversy and tension between nationalistic Austro-Germans, Poles, Jews, and Ukranians, for a short time becoming the capital of the Western Ukrainian Republic, eventually it was conquered by the newly reestablished Poland. After World War II Poland's borders were relocated generally towards the west and the city fell to the Soviet Union. After the collapse of the U.S.S.R. it became part of the newly independent Ukraine—for which it currently serves as the administrative centre of Lviv Oblast, and designated as its own raion (district) within that oblast.
    Lviv is on the edge of the Roztochia Upland, about 70 km from the Polish border and about 160 km (100 miles) from the eastern Carpathian Mountains. The average altitude of Lviv is 296 m above sea level, although it has many hills. Its highest point is the Vysokyi Zamok (High Castle), 409 m above sea level. This has a commanding view of the historic city centre with its distinctive green-domed churches and intricate architecture.
    The old walled city was at the foothills of the High Castle on the banks of the river Poltva. In the 13th century, the river was used to transport goods. In the early 20th century, it was covered over in areas where it flows through the city. The river flows directly beneath the central street of Lviv, Freedom Avenue (Prospect Svobody) and the famous Opera House.
    Lviv was founded by King Danylo Halytskiy of the Ruthenian principality of Halych-Volhynia, and named in honor of his son, Lev. When Danylo died Lev made Lviv the capital of Halich-Volhynia.[citation needed] The city is first mentioned in the Halych-Volhynian Chronicle,which dates from 1256. It was captured by Poland in 1340 and, in 1356, Casimir III of Poland brought in German burghers and granted the Magdeburg rights which implied that all city matters were to be resolved by a council, elected by the wealthy citizens. The city council seal of the 14th century stated: S(igillum): Civitatis Lembvrgensis. As part of Poland (and later the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), Lviv became the capital of the Ruthenian Voivodeship.
    As Lviv prospered, it became religiously and ethnically diverse. The 17th century brought invading armies of Swedes, Hungarians from Transylvania, Russians and Cossacks to its gates. However, Lviv was the only major city of Poland that was not captured by the invaders. In 1672 it was besieged by the Ottomans, who also failed to conquer it. Lviv was captured for the first time by a foreign army in 1704, when Swedish troops under King Charles XII entered the city after a siege.
    In 1772, following the First Partition of Poland, the city known in German as Lemberg became the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. It was captured by the Russian army in September 1914 but retaken by Austria-Hungary in June the following year.
    With the collapse of the Habsburg Empire at the end of World War I Lviv became an arena of conflict between the local Ukrainian and Polish-Jewish populations. During these fights an important role was taken by young Polish city defenders called Lwow Eaglets. Soon afterward, Lwow was attacked by the Red Army under the command of Aleksandr Yegorov and Stalin during Polish-Soviet War, but the city resisted[2]. For the courage of its inhabitants Lwow was awarded the Virtuti Militari cross by Jozef Pilsudski on 22 November 1920.
    Between the World Wars, it was the third largest Polish city (after Warsaw and Lodz) and the seat of the Lwow Voivodeship with a large Jewish population. Pogroms and repression had (save for isolated incidents) always been worse in countries outside of Poland, so cities like Lviv grew through Jewish immigration that was spurred by prejudices and repression in other countries.
    In the Soviet invasion of Poland (1939), the Soviet Union took Lvov, which became the capital of the Lvov Oblast. But in the initial stage of Operation Barbarossa (late June, 1941), Lvov was taken by the Germans. This was a period of massacres in Galicia. The evacuating Soviets decided to kill the mass of people waiting in the prisons for deportation to the Gulag even if their fault was petty crimes or no fault at all. When the Wehrmacht forces arrived in the area, they discovered the evidence of the mass murders committed by the NKVD and NKGB, including the mass killing of Jews and Polish intelligentsia.
    On June 30, 1941, Yaroslav Stetsko declared in Lvov the Government of an independent Ukraine. This was done without approval of the Germans, and Galicia was subsequently incorporated into the General Government as Distrikt Galizien. As Germany viewed Galicia as already aryanized and civilized, the non-Jewish Galicians escaped the full extent of German intentions more than many other Ukrainians who lived further eastward. Despite the more lenient extent of German control over the majority of the Galician population, the Jewish Galicians were deported to concentration camps, much like elsewhere in Ukraine.
    The Soviets retook Lvov in the Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive of July, 1944.
    Lviv and its population suffered greatly from the two world wars as the wars were fought across the local geography causing major collateral damage and disruption. Because of immigration in part, it recovered somewhat faster between the wars than comparable cities. World War II also brought the deliberate murders of the Holocaust. After the war, the Soviet Union expelled most of the ethnic Polish population, which was resettled in the Recovered Territories. Little remains of Polish culture in Lviv except for the Italian-influenced architecture[3]. The Polish history of Lwow is still well remembered in Poland.



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Restaurant ElitaWe work: from 11:00am to 11:00pm

The leadthrough of banquets,
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Live music.
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